Albus Dumbledore Clueless or Calculating?
Hi everybody. I know I said Id be continuing my series of articles on Snape today, but due to an enormous amount of feedback, there was another question that I felt that I needed to address first. Ive never before received so many e-mails with the same content (it even tops the I love Rupert Grint-owls I got after my movie article. :-) And no, I dont hate the boy in any way. Im sure hes a very nice person. Im a firm believer of the theory that you cant actually hate someone you dont know. Just wanted to emphasise that, since I still get angry owls on the subject ;-)) After my last article, I got literally hundreds of e-mails asking and/or protesting about the following statement I made in NT 34:
(Snapes point of view) I know that Voldemort is in Quirrells head (because Dumbledore told me so that Id be able to protect myself)
I did get some 60-70 owls from people who agreed, but they were clearly in minority to all the hundreds of people who didnt do so. Thus, I thought I should try to explain my reasoning a bit, since most of my other theories about Snape rely on much the same principle: Albus Dumbledore knows a lot more than Harry (and we sometimes) thinks he does.
I would like to start, not with the events of PS/SS, but with what happened in CoS. Here, Dumbledore clearly knows, pretty early on, that Voldemort is behind opening the Chamber of Secrets and that he therefore is present at Hogwarts in some form. When McGonagall asks who opened the Chamber, Dumbledore answers that the question isnt who, the question is how. At the end, he says that what he most wants to know is how Voldemort could possess Ginny when his sources told him that Voldemort was hiding in Albania. The fact that it took the Trio the entire book to figure out that the monster was a Basilisk doesnt mean that Dumbledore was equally in the dark. Apart from the fact that the man has seen it all before and, most likely, has figured out that Tom Riddle was the real culprit back then (advantage of hindsight), the list of petrifying monsters who kill without leaving marks should reasonably be very, very short. Combine those facts with the symbol of Slytherin House, the fact that Salazar Slytherin was a Parselmouth, and voilà! You have your Basilisk. If Hermione managed it with far less information, Dumbledore should have too.
Step two, if you know that the Chamber has been reopened and the Basilisk is slithering around, somebody must have released it. That somebody must be a Parselmouth. The gift of Parseltongue is, as stated in CoS, very rare. The only ones we know of in Hogwarts history (correct me if Im wrong) are Salazar Slytherin, Tom Riddle and Harry Potter. Reasonably, before it was discovered that Harry was a Parselmouth, Dumbledore probably believed that there were no students with this ability at Hogwarts. Which lead to the conclusion that Voldemort was possessing somebody to control the snake. Therefore the not who, the question is how-statement.
My point is that in CoS, I think its quite clear that Dumbledore had figured out that the monster was a Basilisk and that Voldemort was operating at Hogwarts through a teacher or a student. What he didnt know was: a) how Voldemort managed to be at Hogwarts and in Albania at the same time, and b) what person he was using to achieve his goals. This is of course my personal reading of things, but I really think he would have to be exceptionally thick not to work those things out. So why didnt he tell people? Well, first of all, telling people that a Basilisk is roaming the school will most likely create panic and get the school shut down. Shutting down the school means that all the students go home and that its virtually impossible to find out whos being possessed and end said possession. He probably figured the victim was a student, but since (according to JKR) there are about a thousand students at Hogwarts, singling one of them out as Voldemorts victim isnt the easiest thing to do, especially when you dont know exactly how the possession is working. And after it became clear that Harry Potter could speak Parseltongue, I imagine he became the number one suspect on more lists than the Hufflepuffs. Contrary to the Hufflepuff suspicion, however, I think Dumbledore was quite convinced that the person behind the whole thing was Voldemort and that Harry, if it was Harry, was merely an innocent pawn in the Dark Lords game. If you think about it, Harry really is the most logical choice. No one really knows exactly what happened when he defeated Voldemort the first time or how the connection between the two works. Dumbledore states clearly in OotP that he feared that Voldemort would try to possess Harry to spy on him. Is it so far fetched that he might have thought along the same lines back in CoS when somebody, under Voldemorts command, was driving the Basilisk along the Hogwarts corridors?
I think that Dumbledore is very well aware of where Voldemort is, most of the time at least. We know about at least one silver instrument in his office (out of many) that is connected to the Dark Lord. He has sources that told him that Voldemort was in Albania (another silver instrument perhaps?). I would be very surprised if he didnt have something to alert him if Voldemort came to Hogwarts.
It seems like the situation in GoF is much the same as in CoS: Dumbledore knows that someone is working for Voldemort (note that the Lord isnt actually at Hogwarts at this time though), but he doesnt know who. So why would it be so impossible that he knew about Quirrell back in PS/SS? Lets examine the situation
The Quirrell dilemma
four years ago
the means for my return seemed assured. A wizard young, foolish, and gullible wandered across my path in the forest I had made my home. Oh, he seemed the very chance I had been dreaming of
for he was a teacher at Dumbledores school
(Voldemort, GoF p. 567)
Poor bloke. Brilliant mind. He [Quirrell] was fine while he was studyin outta books but then he took a year off ter get some first-hand experience
They say he met vampires in the Black Forest and there was a nasty bit o trouble with a hag never been the same since.
(Hagrid, PS/SS p. 55)
I met him [Voldemort] when I travelled around the world. A foolish young man I was then, full of ridiculous ideas about good and evil.
(Quirrell, PS/SS p. 211)
These three quotes establish, if nothing else, three things: 1) that Quirrell already was a teacher at Hogwarts when Voldemort got hold of him. Dumbledore did thus not hire somebody he knew was possessed. 2) Voldemort got hold of Quirrell four years prior to Voldemorts rebirth. If we use the conventional timeline (which puts Harrys birth in 1980), the rebirth was on June 24, 1995, which would put Quirrell and Voldemorts encounter around June 1991, only months before Harry started Hogwarts. 3) Quirrell was not a Death Eater the first time around. (I met him, context indicating a first meeting. Also, hes at several times described as young, something that Snape, for instance, isnt, despite the fact that hes only in his early thirties in this book.)
What I find bewildering with these three quotes is the fact that Hagrid seems so used to Quirrells scared professor-act. Because we know its an act, we saw that clearly when he let it fall in A Man with Two Faces (PS/SS 17). I always assumed that the stories about being scared by vampires and hags were just cover stories and that his stuttering behaviour would have started at pretty much the same time as he teamed up with Voldemort. However, Hagrid talks about it like Quirrells been this way for years, which makes me think that either the year off to get experience happened a couple of years earlier and Quirrell just happened to run into Voldemort the summer of -91 when he was on vacation or similar, (in which case the stuttering act is difficult to explain, as well as the I met him when I was travelling around the world-part) or Hagrid is exaggerating and/or JKR mangled this part a little. Im leaning towards the second option. Hagrid does tend to exaggerate and JKR isnt perfect, just like all people.
Ok, so on with why I believe that Dumbledore knew about Quirrell and Voldemort.
1) The removal of the Philosophers Stone from Gringotts.
Gringotts is, according to Hagrid, considered to be the safest place to hide something apart from Hogwarts. The Stone was in a high security vault. It was moved the same day as Quirrell tried to steal it. Coincidence? Hardly. Dumbledore knew somebody was after it, and Im quite sure that he knew that that somebody was Voldemort or a servant of said Lord. After all, very powerful dark magic is needed to get through. And here we have young Quirrell, recently back from his year abroad, behaving very odd indeed. Hem, hem
2) The obstacle course set up to protect the Stone.
To me, this entire setup positively screams trap. Especially since the Stone is hidden in the Mirror of Erised at the end. Consider this: if the Trio hadnt gone through the trapdoor, Quirrellmort would have been stuck (not bodily of course) in front of the mirror long enough for Dumbledore to come back and catch him. The Stone would have been safe and the bad guy would have been caught.
3) The fact that Quirrell tried to kill Harry and Snape knew about it.
Dumbledore came to the second game. That indicates that he knows what happened in the first. If Snapes working for Dumbledore (which Im pretty sure he is), he would have told him about Quirrell hexing the broom. Quirrell, the teacher who went to far away places and came home with a stinky turban and a new personality; its very suspicious.
Ok, now on to the 100,000 dollar question: Why wouldnt Dumbledore have done something about it if he knew that Voldemort was possessing Quirrell and roaming about Hogwarts.
Well, I have three theories, which I think compliment each other. Number one is the fact that, though Dumbledore most likely suspected Quirrell of being possessed by Voldemort, he probably wasnt entirely sure until later on in the year. It might have been like in CoS, that he knew that Voldemort was at Hogwarts but not whom he was using to get to the Stone. He didnt do anything at first because he needed to make sure what was actually going on.
Number two: like in CoS, it would be better for him to have Voldemort somewhere where he could watch him than somewhere where he couldnt. There are still plenty of old Death Eaters walking around, and if Quirrellmort got fired, he probably would end up on Lucius Malfoys doorstep in less than a week. Not good. Vapourmort is, after all, far better than a risen Dark Lord (à la GoF), something Mr Malfoy could easily make happen (really, if Pettigrew could, Malfoy would be able to.) Quirrellmort probably isnt even such a threat to the students, well except for Harry Potter, but one boy you can protect. Hes after the Philosophers Stone after all, why would he blow his cover before hes reached his goal by harming students? Voldemort might be evil, but he isnt stupid. And weve been told several times that he prefers to use subterfuge and manipulation where he can. Hes not a big brute, I doubt that the students were in any danger at all. Some unicorns, sure, but not the students.
If you see it like that, keeping Quirrell at Hogwarts when knowing that hes possessed by Voldemort makes a lot more sense than letting him out on the street. Inside the castle he can be watched, (by many eyes, just think of all the portraits) he isnt really a threat to the students (a lot less than a risen Voldemort would be in any case) and you can use the Stone as bait to catch him and perhaps save Quirrell who used to be a good guy. Quirrell is described as young on several occasions, something e.g. Snape isnt (even though Snape is only in his early thirties in PS/SS, which must be considered quite young for a wizard.) Quirrell might be as young as in his early to mid-twenties, seeing as hes already taught at Hogwarts for some time (how long, we dont know, but since Snape became Potions Master being only about 21, Quirrell could quite easily be 23-24 in PS/SS.) If this is somewhat correct, he never was a Death Eater the first time around. He would have been too young. And from what Voldemort says in GoF, you definitely get the impression that he didnt know Quirrell from before. Quirrell gives the same impression.
So basically, it comes down to this (for Dumbledore, if he knows that Quirrell is carrying Voldemort in his turban): keep Voldemort at Hogwarts where you can watch him, keep him occupied and perhaps find a way to trap him and save Quirrell, or throw them both out into the Wizarding world where you have no control over them and where a number of old Death Eaters would be more than happy to help restore Voldemort to his former greatness and persuade him that he might not need the Stone right now. Oh, and Quirrell would most definitely die. I think it was one of Dumbledores more intelligent decisions to keep him at Hogwarts (if he did know). The one part I dont understand is why he waited so long to try to catch him. Well, actually, I do have a theory on that mystery as well. :-)
Its all about stalling. A direct approach has uncertain consequences, especially when you know that you cant kill your enemy (prophecy). I dont think that theres a great mystery to why Dumbledore didnt try to kill Voldemort, both in PS/SS and at the end of OotP: He simply believes in the prophecy, and according to that prophecy, only little Harry Potter (i.e. the one) is able to do that. Dumbledore cant kill Voldemort (as things stand) and he knows it. Voldemort doesnt however (because he hasnt heard the prophecy in its entirety) and it would be preferable that things stay that way, because if Voldemort knew that Dumbledore couldnt kill him, hed probably go straight to Hogwarts to finish off that troublesome Potter-boy before hes ready to fight him (which I think he just might do in Book 6, by the way). Harry Potter is the only one who can vanquish the Dark Lord, so you try to stall said Lord to allow the boy to grow up a bit and become a little stronger (improve your odds). And stalling him isnt very hard. Weve seen, time and again, how inflexible Voldemort can be when he sets his mind to something. Hes not exactly the most clever strategist ever born (neither is Dumbledore by the way). In PS/SS he spends the entire year trying to get the Philosophers Stone, when a much smarter course of action would have been to go see Lucius Malfoy and do the ritual to get his body back. In GoF he waits patiently for the third task to get Harry Potter instead of having the fake Moody just transform e.g. his pillow to a portkey in the beginning of the year (though there might have been advantages to doing the ritual around the summer solstice that we dont know of). And in OotP, both sides spend an entire year guarding/trying to get through a friggin door. If thats not stalling, I dont know what is. It also seems like both sides have a weakness for wanting to win in a specific way, rather than just winning. It seems like Voldemort wants to win in the most devious way possible, involving a nice web of manipulation, subterfuge and intricate plotting. He doesnt just want to win, he wants to win with style. He wants to conquer, not butcher (ex. GoF, giving Harry back his wand, telling the DEs not to touch him; CoS, sending the Basilisk after him instead of simply killing him with an Avada Kedavra.) It seems to me like Harry and Tom are even more alike than we think. If Harry has some Slytherin in him (making the Hat hesitate), Id say that Tom mirrors him, having some definite Gryffindor tendencies. Something to think about
And, as for Dumbledore, he obviously has a weakness for trying to catch people in the act and to play fair. Why else the PS/SS obstacle course? Or his silence on the matter of Tom Riddles birth?
When it comes to Dumbledore, we are limited by the Harry-filter, tending to see the Headmaster the way Harry does, assuming that he knows as much as he does, that he too discovers each situation along with Harry and us, the readers. We neglect to see what was pointed out several times in OotP: just because Dumbledore doesnt share all his knowledge with Harry doesnt mean that he doesnt have it. Harry only gets to know what he needs to know, and this is true in all the books. On a story level, Harry only gets to know as much as Dumbledore deems wise to tell him (e.g. OotP). On a storytelling level, Harry only gets to know as much as JKR wants us to know. If we got to read the books through Albus Dumbledore instead of Harry Potter, Id bet theyd be a lot more detailed but much less exciting. I think its safe to assume that Dumbledore knows a lot more than the Trio on most occasions, (though not on all, we have plenty of examples where Dumbledore is in the dark as well) and especially when it relates to Voldemort and Death Eater activity. So yes, I do believe that Dumbledore knew that Quirrell was possessed by Voldemort in PS/SS and that he told at least Snape (and probably McGonagall) about it. But then, in the end, until JKR tells us something definite on the matter, thats just my theory.
See you next time, when well get back to the Potions Master.
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